Publications Overview

Northwest Green Chemistry regularly publishes resources communicating our findings on safer chemical alternatives and processes.


Case Studies

Converting Design Principles into Metrics Using Alternatives Assessment: A Case Study on Food Clamshell Take-Out Containers

Engineering students at Gonzaga University applied a combination of sustainability assessment tools to evaluate how four different food take-out containers aligned with green chemistry & engineering (GC&E) design principles. Learn more about the case study here. The full report will be available for download soon.

Case Study:  Failing fast with Duwamish River ship operators, Andries Breedt, and Marine Fenders

When energy from waves pushes boats up against docks, jetties, and other vessels, ship and marina owners install fenders to vessel hulls and docks to absorb the energy and prevent damage. Used tires are a popular choice for fenders, but are they the best choice? Hazardous chemicals, including zinc and organic hydrocarbons, can leach from used tires into the marina, and tire rubber degrades quickly in marine conditions. Discover our findings in the full case study.


Articles and Reports

TechLaw, Inc. and Northwest Green Chemistry. 2018. “Alternatives to Five Phthalates of Concern to Puget Sound.” Read the Report

TechLaw, Inc. and Northwest Green Chemistry.  2017.  "Washington State Antifouling Boat Paint Alternatives Assessment."                    Read the Report

Heine, L.G. 2016. "Perspectives: Nonprofit groups come in many colors." Chemical and Engineering News. 94 (39): 40-43   Read the Paper

Sass, J. Heine, L.G. and Hwang, N. "Use of a Modified GreenScreen Tool to conduct a screening-level comparative hazard assessment of conventional silver and two forms of nanosilver." Environmental Health. 2016. 15: 105      Read the Paper

Lavoie, E.T, L.G. Heine, H. Holder et al. 2010. "Chemicals Alternatives Assessment: Enabling Substitution to Safer Chemicals." Feature article in Environmental Science and Technology. 44, 9244–9249                  Read the Paper

Whittaker, M.H., and L.G. Heine.  2013. "Chemicals Alternatives Assessment (CAA): Tools for Selecting Less Hazardous Chemicals." Chemical Alternatives Assessment. Royal Society of Chemistry. 

Heine, L.G. and S. Franjevic. 2013. "Chemical Hazard Assessment and the GreenScreen for Safer Chemicals." Chemical Alternatives Assessment. Royal Society of Chemistry. 


Book Chapters

Whittaker, Margaret; Heine, Lauren. “Toxicological and Environmental Issues Associated with Waterproofing and Water Repellent Formulations."  Waterproof and Water Repellent Textiles and Clothing, edited by John T. Williams, Elsevier, 2018, pp. 89–120. Textile Institute Book Series. Their chapter is available at Elsevier and a preview is available on Google.                              
Heine, Lauren; Whittaker, Margaret.  "How Chemical Hazard assessment in consumer Products Drives Green Chemistry." Handbook of Green Chemistry Volume 11: Green Metrics, edited by David J. Constable and Concepción Jiménez-González. It is available from Wiley.  

Heine, L.G. and T. McGrath. 2008. "Tools and Strategies for Greening Chemical Inventories in Small Business." Green Chemistry Metrics: Measuring and Monitoring Sustainable Processes. Edited by Alexei Lapkin and David Constable.

Vesilind, P.A., Morgan, S.M. and L.G. Heine. 2009. Introduction to Environmental Engineering, Third Edition. Cengage Learning. USA.  This introductory environmental engineering textbook integrates engineering and environmental ethics as well as concepts for designing products to eliminate problems of waste and toxics from the start